image of Heloise

Week 15: Heloisa

Background | Background Quiz | Starting Assumptions | Resources | Extras
Vocabulary | Etymology | Grammar | Perseus Dictionary | Perseus Tool

Reading Overview | Reading Quiz: English
| Reading Quiz: Latin
Discussion Questions | Latin Composition | Weekly Checklist


Reading #2

Go to Reading #3 ->

per ipsum itaque
qui te sibi adhuc quoquo modo protegit
Christum obsecramus,
qui: relative pronoun (antecedent is ipsum = Christum)
sibi: dative singular, refers back to subject of protegit (qui = Christus)
  how does Heloise imagine Abelard's relationship to Christ?

quatinus ancillulas ipsius et tuas
crebris litteris
de his
in quibus adhuc jactatus es
naufragiis
certificare digneris,

ancillula: diminutive of ancilla
ipsius = Christi
crebris: thick in the sense of more frequent, more often
quibus: relative pronoun (antecedent is his...naufragiis)

digneris: subjunctive (subjunctive in imperative sense: if only you would...)

  what is Heloise asking Abelard to do more often?
ut nos saltem,
quae tibi sole remansimus,
doloris vel gaudii participes habeas.

ut...habeas: ut+subjunctive
quae: relative pronoun, antecedent is nos
sole = solae (agrees with nos)
participes: s.v. particeps (takes genitive: sharer in something)

  why should Abelard write to her more often?
solent etenim dolenti
nonnullam afferre consolationem
qui condolent,
et quodlibet onus
pluribus impositum
levius sustinetur sive defertur.
solent: subject is general "those people" (those people who, qui)
dolenti: dative singular (participle)
afferre: infinitive (s.v. affero)
qui: relative pronoun, antecedent is the unexpressed subject of solent
onus: neuter singular nominative (subject of sustinetur, defertur)
pluribus: dative plural
impositum: neuter singular, with onus
levius: comparative adverb
  what is the advantage of having someone share your troubles?
quod si paululum
haec tempestas quieverit,
tanto amplius maturandae sunt litterae
quanto sunt iocundiores futurae.

paululum: adverb (duration of time: "for a tiny bit of time")
quieverit: s.v. quiesco
amplius: comparative adverb
maturandae: future passive participle, with the sense of "must be" or "should be" (your letters should be written hurriedly)
iocundiores: comparative adjective (s.v. iocundus)
futurae: modifies litterae = epistulae (tuae litterae iocundiores futurae sunt, si tempestas quieverit)

  should Abelard write to her if their situation starts to improve, or only write while they are having troubles?
de quibuscunque autem nobis scribas
non parvum nobis remedium conferes,
hoc saltem uno
quod te nostri memorem esse
monstrabis.
[...]

conferes: future tense
uno: this one thing
quod: relative pronoun, antecedent is uno ("the fact that")

te memorem esse: indirect statement, introduced by monstrabis
memorem: this adjective takes a genitive (mindful of something)
nostri: genitive

  why does Heloise feel better when she receives letters from Abelard?
scripsisti ad amicum
prolixae consolationem epistulae,
et pro adversitatibus quidem suis,
sed de tuis;

adversitatibus: s.v. adversitas

suis: nonclassical usage of reflexive pronoun; refers to amicus

  Heloise is returning again to the letter that Abelard wrote to his friend: what was his purpose in writing that letter?
quas videlicet tuas diligenter commemorans,
cum eius intenderes consolationi,
nostrae plurimum addidisti desolationi,
et dum eius mederi vulneribus cuperes,
nova quaedam nobis vulnera doloris
inflixisti
et priora auxisti.
quas: relative pronoun, antecedent is adversitatibus
cum...intenderes: cum+subjunctive
eius = amici
nostrae: feminine dative, agrees with desolationi
mederi: deponent infinitive, s.v. medeor
dum...cuperes: dum+subjunctive
quaedam: neuter accusative plural, agrees with vulnera
inflixisti: s.v. infligo
priora: neuter accusative plural (priora vulnera)
auxisti: s.v. augeo
  what is the result of this letter for Heloise when she reads what Abelard wrote to his friend?
[...] nosti, carissime --
noverunt omnes
quanta in te amiserim
et quam miserabili casu
summa et ubique nota proditio
me ipsam quoque mihi tecum abstulerit,

amiserim: indirect question introduced by quanta

quam: adverbial, "how" (quam miserabili, how miserable)
ubique: adverb, "everywhere" (ubique nota, known everywhere)
abstulerit: indirect question introduced by quam

proditio abstulerit me ipsam tecum mihi: in other words, Heloise feels not only that she lost Abelard as a result of the disaster, but that she lost her own self

  what is it that Abelard knows, that everybody knows...?
ut incomparabiliter maior sit dolor
ex amissionis modo
quam ex damno.

ut...sit: ut+subjunctive (result clause)
incomparabiliter: adverb
maior: comparative adjective, agrees with dolor
ex: takes ablative (ex modo... ex damno)
quam: with comparative adjective (maior ex modo amissionis quam ex damno))

  what causes Heloise the greater pain: the way she lost Abelard, or the mere fact of losing him?
quo vero maior est dolendi causa,
maiora sunt consolationis adhibenda remedia;
non utique ab alio,
sed a te ipso,
ut, qui solus es in causa dolendi,
solus sis in gratia consolandi.
maior: comparative adjective, agrees with causa
maiora: comparative adjective, agrees with remedia (neuter plural)
adhibenda: future passive participle (should or must be applied)
utique: makes emphatic negative (non utique: absolutely not)
ab alio... a te: personal agent with passive verb (adhibenda)
ut... sis: ut+subjunctive
qui: relative pronoun, antecedent is tu (subject of sis)
causa: ablative singular (with in)
gratia: ablative singular (with in)
  why is it up to Abelard to make Heloise feel better?
solus quippe es qui me contristare,
qui me letificare seu consolari valeas,
et solus es
qui plurimum id mihi debeas
et nunc maxime
cum universaque iusseris
in tantum impleverim
ut cum te in aliquo offendere non possem,
me ipsam pro iussu tuo perdere sustinerem.

qui: relative pronoun, antecedent is tu (subject of es)
contristare... letificare... sonsolari: infinitives with valeas
letificare = laetificare
plurimum: comparative adjective (plurimum id: this very big thing)
cum...iusseris: cum+subjunctive
iusseris: s.v. iubeo
universa = omnia (universa quae iusseris: everything that you ordered)
cum...non possem: cum+subjunctive
ut...sustinerem: ut+subjunctive

  why is Abelard in debt to Heloise? why should he be willing to do what she asks?
et quod maius est
dictuque mirabile,
in tantam versus est amor insaniam
ut quod solum appetebat,
hoc ipse sibi sine spe recuperationis auferret,
maius: comparative adjective (neuter singular)
dictu: ablative, with mirabile (amazing to say)
versus est: s.v. vertor
ut...auferret: ut+subjunctive
quod: relative pronoun, antecedent is hoc
appetebat: subject of this verb is amor
hoc: neuter accusative (object of auferret)
ipse = ipse amor (subject of auferret)
sine: preposition (takes ablative)
recuperationis: genitive, with spe (hope OF recovery)
  what is so strange and amazing about what Heloise did at Abelard's request?
cum ad tuam statim iussionem
tam habitum ipsa
quam animum immutarem,
cum...immutarem: cum + subjunctive
statim: adverb
iussionem: feminine accusative, s.v. iussio
ipsa: ego ipsa (subject of immutarem)
habitum: s.v. habitus (accusative object of immutarem)
  what exactly did Heloise do at Abelard's request?
ut te
tam corporis mei
quam animi
unicum possessorem ostenderem.
ut...ostenderem: ut+subjunctive
unicum possessorem: predicate phrase, agrees with te (I could show that you are the only owner)
corporis: s.v. corpus (genitive, with possessorem, owner OF)
  what conclusion does Heloise want everybody to draw from her actions?
nihil umquam - Deus scit -
in te nisi te requisivi:
te pure,
non tua concupiscens.
requisivi: s.v. requiro
pure: adverb
te: accusative, object of concupiscens
tua: neuter accusative plural, object of concupiscens
  what is it that Heloise wants to have?
non matrimonii foedera,
non dotes aliquas expectavi,
non denique meas voluptates aut voluntates,
sed tuas,
sicut ipse nosti,
adimplere studui.
foedera: s.v. foedus (neuter accusative, object of expectavi)
dotes: s.v. dos (feminine accusative, object of expectavi)
voluptates: s.v. voluptas (accusative object of adimplere)
voluntates: s.v. voluntas (accusative object of adimplere)
tuas = tuas voluptates, tuas voluntates
nosti = novisiti
studui: s.v. studeo
  instead of a dowry or marriage vows, what did Heloise seek?
et si uxoris nomen sanctius ac validius
videretur,
dulcius mihi semper extitit
amicae vocabulum
aut, si non indigneris,
concubinae vel scorti;
uxoris: s.v. uxor (genitive)
sanctius...validius: comparative adjective, neuter singular (with nomen)
nomen: neuter nominative singular, subject of videretur
dulcius: comparative adjective, neuter singular (with vocabulum)
amicae... concubinae... scorti: genitive with vocabulum
  although the name of "wife" might be more respectable, what did Heloise prefer to be called?
ut, quo me videlicet pro te amplius humiliarem,
ampliorem apud te consequerer gratiam,
et sic etiam excellentiae tuae gloriam
minus laederem.
ut...consequerer... laederem: ut+subjunctive
amplius: comparative adverb
ampliorem: comparative adjective (feminine accusative, with gratiam)
gratiam: accusative object of deponent verb consequerer
minus: comparative adverb
  Heloise admits that it was humiliating to not be called Abelard's wife: what is the reason for her being willing to humiliate herself in this way?
quod et tu ipse
tui gratia oblitus penitus non fuisti
in ea quam supra memini
ad amicum epistula
pro consolatione directa,
ubi et rationes nonnullas
quibus te
a coniugio nostro
et infaustis thalamis
revocare conabar
exponere non es dedignatus,
quod: relative pronoun, antecedent is this "thing", the stuff that Heloise just explained
penitus: adverb
in ea (epistula)
quam: relative pronoun, antecedent is ea epistula
directa: agrees with epistula
ubi: where, i.e. in that letter
rationes: accusative plural, object of exponere
quibus: relative pronoun, antecedent is rationes
te: accusative object of revocare
conabar: s.v. conor (deponent verb)
dedignatus es: s.v. dedignor (deponent verb)
  did Abelard tell his friend about the way that Heloise rejected the idea of getting married?
sed plerisque tacitis
quibus
amorem coniugio,
libertatem vinculo
praeferebam.
pleris = pleris rationibus
tacitis: silent in the sense that Abelard omitted them from his letter to his friend
quibus: reative pronoun, antecedent is pleris (rationibus)
praeferebam: s.v. praefero - takes accusative and dative, prefer something (amorem, libertatem) to something else (coniugio, vinculo)
  did Abelard in his letter explain to his friend that Heloise preferred love to marriage, and freedom to the bonds of matrimony?
Deum testem invoco,
si me Augustus
universo praesidens mundo
matrimonii honore dignaretur,
totumque mihi orbem confirmaret
in perpetuo possidendum,
carius mihi et dignius videretur
tua dici meretrix quam illius imperatrix.
testem: s.v. testis (predicate, agrees with Deum)
praesidens: participle, agrees with Augustus
me: accusative, object of dignaretur
dignaretur: s.v. dignor (deponent verb)
perpetuo: adverb (forever, perpetually)
carius...dignius: comparative adjective, neuter (agrees with infinitive dici; infinitives are treated as neuter nouns)
dici: passive infinitive
illius = Augusti
(note the wordplay between meretrix and imperatrix)
  if the emperor Augustus offered to make Heloise his empress and give the whole world to her to rule, what would Heloise prefer instead?

Go to Reading #3 ->


Modern Languages 4970 / MRS 4903: Medieval Latin. Spring 2003 Online Course at the University of Oklahoma. Visit http://www.ou.edu/online/ for more info.
Laura Gibbs, University of Oklahoma - Information Technology © 2003.  laura-gibbs@ou.edu. Last updated: December 29, 2002 7:12 PM