Medieval Latin Online Logo

HOME | Course Info | Blackboard | QUIA
Week 1 Intro | Weekly Activities | Calendar | Grading
Grammar Guide | Perseus Dictionary | Perseus Tool

image of Hrabanus Maurus
images from ms. of De civitate Dei
image of medieval king (11th century)

Grammar: Passive Verb Forms

In Latin, there are two basic verb systems: the present system (includes present, future, and imperfect) and the perfect system (the perfect, future perfect, and pluperfect).

When you are dealing with passive verb forms, there is a huge difference between the present system and the perfect system:

Present passive verbs are synthetic. That means the present passive verbs are expressed as a single word: the stem and the ending are combined and you have just one word.

Perfect passive verbs are analytic. That means the perfect passive verbs are expressed as a combination of the perfect passive participle and a form of the verb to be.

Use the chart below to compare the present and perfect forms of the verb amo, -are.

Present Passive: Indicative Present Passive: Subjunctive
Present amatur ametur
Future amabitur  
Imperfect amabatur amaretur
Perfect Passive: Indicative Perfect Passive: Subjunctive
Perfect amatus est amatus sit
Future Perfect amatus erit  
Pluperfect amatus erat amatus esset


Modern Languages 4970 / MRS 4903: Medieval Latin. Spring 2003 Online Course at the University of Oklahoma. Visit for more info.
Laura Gibbs, University of Oklahoma - Information Technology © 2003. Last updated: December 29, 2002 7:12 PM