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Future Passive Participle

The future passive participle has a special status in Latin, because it has both a grammatical quality but also a specific semantic quality.

Grammar: Like other participles, the future passive participle has a tense and a voice (future passive), and endings which reflect case, number, and gender

Semantics: Unlike other participles, the future passive participle conveys a particular kind of meaning: when something is expressed with the future passive participle, it often conveys the feeling of "must be -----ed" or "should be ------ed".

The most famous Roman example of the future passive participle is Cato the Elder endlessly repeating to the Roman Senate: Carthago delenda est, Carthage must be destroyed.

The future passive participle is sometimes referred to as the gerundive.

The future passive participle is formed from the present stem of the verb; this means that you build the gerundive based on the 1st and 2nd principle parts of the verb:

  • amo, amare - amandus
  • habeo, habere - habendus
  • duco, ducere - ducendus
  • capio, capere - capiendus
  • audio, audire - audiendus

Modern Languages 4970 / MRS 4903: Medieval Latin. Spring 2003 Online Course at the University of Oklahoma. Visit for more info.
Laura Gibbs, University of Oklahoma - Information Technology © 2003. Last updated: December 29, 2002 7:12 PM