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Grammar: Correlative Adverbs of Place

More Correlatives: Adverbs of Place. There are some correlative adverbs in English, like "here - there - where", "hence - thence - whence." In modern English, however, this system is breaking down rapidly. In Latin, the system of correlatives was very strong. Words like unde and inde ("whence" and "thence") or huc and istuc ("hither" and "thither") did not sound archaic or weird in Latin. They were a natural part of the language. Here is a chart that might help you recognize and analyze the relationships between these words in Latin.

ends with -i or -ic
ends with -o or -uc
ends with -nde or -inc
(parallel to hic) hic: here huc: to here, hither hinc: from here, hence
(parallel to quis) ubi: where quo: whither unde: whence
(parallel to is) ibi: there eo: to there, thither inde: from there, thence
compound with -dem ibidem (ibi-dem): in the same place eodem (eo-dem): to the same place indidem (inde-dem): from the same place
(parallel to ille) illic: there illuc: thither illinc: thence
(parallel to iste) istic: there istuc: thither istinc: thence

compound with ali-
(parallel to alius)

alibi: in another place alio: to another place aliunde: from another place
compound with aliqu- / alic-
(parallel to aliquis)
alicubi: somewhere aliquo: to somewhere alicunde: from somewhere
(parallel to quisquis, quicumque) ubiubi: wherever quoquo: to wherever undecumque: from wherever

Modern Languages 4970 / MRS 4903: Medieval Latin. Spring 2003 Online Course at the University of Oklahoma. Visit for more info.
Laura Gibbs, University of Oklahoma - Information Technology © 2003. Last updated: December 29, 2002 7:12 PM