Singular endings. Unlike the first declension, the second declension does not have different categories based on vowel patterns. What you do have to pay attention to in the second declension, is the masculine forms and the neuter forms. The genitive and dative forms are the same for both masculine and neuter, as is the accusative singular, but the nominative, accusative plural, and vocative forms are different.
Vocative. The masculine singular vocative ending is your first distinct vocative ending! (Almost all vocative endings are the same as the nominative.)
Neuter Nominative-Accusative. One of the most unusual features of neuter nouns is that in every Indo-European language (including Latin and Greek), the neuter nominative and the neuter accusative forms are always identical! To call you attention to this, they have been marked in yellow below
||Neuter Singular||Masculine Plural||Neuter Plural|
|Vocative||-ε||same as nominative||
same as nominative
Make sure you practice the paradigms!
Because some second declension endings are short monosyllables and some are long monosyllables, you have to pay careful attention to the stress pattern for the different forms, just like in the first declension feminine nouns. Once again, it is the words with antepenultimate stress that will cause the most trouble, because a word cannot have antepenultimate stress when the final syllable is long. Croy does not give you all the information you need to follow the stress patterns, so two words have been added to help you see the different stress patterns:ἱερόν is an example of an neuter noun with ultimate stress, and πρόσωπον is a neuter noun with antepenultimate stress. Want some more words to practice with? Take a look at this chart of Second Declension Masculine and Neuter Nouns in Croy to see the vocabulary from the textbook arranged according to this scheme.
|Ultimate Stress Dictionary Form
||Penultimate Stress Dictionary Form
||Antepenultimate Stress Dictionary Form|
Stress shifts. Remember: the stress shifts because some of the endings are long vowels and some are short. If an ending changes from short to long, the word cannot have antepenultimate stress, so this means the stress will shift! That means you need to pay special attention to the nouns in the antepenultimate stress column, because their stress pattern shifts when a long ending is added to the word.
Nominative plural: short diphthong! The nominative plural ending for the second declension masculine nouns is regarded as short, even though it is a diphthong (just like the nominative plural ending of the first declension, which is also a diphthong, but regarded as short).
Genitive plural circumflex. Note that the second declension has the same ending as the first declension, but it is not stressed. The rule about the stressed genitive plural ending which you learned for the first declension does not apply to the second declension!
Traditional Order: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative - Singular, Plural
This is the traditional way to study noun paradigms - but check below for the transformation patterns, which are a much more effective way to learn the paradigms.
|Nom. Sg.||Gen. Sg.||Dat. Sg.||Acc. Sg.||Voc. Sg.|
|Nom. Pl.||Gen. Pl.||Dat. Pl.||Acc. Pl.|
Transformations. The best way to study a paradigm is in terms of pairs, so that you can see the forms of the Greek words in relation to the other forms. Use these recordings to listen until you can clearly hear the pattern. Then recite together with the recording, so that you can practice pronouncing the words. Then, see if you can fill in the chart provided for both the singular and plural forms.
Singular to Plural Transformations
|Nom. Sg.||Nom. Pl.||Gen. Sg.||Gen. Pl.|
|Dat. Sg.||Dat. Pl.||Acc. Sg.||Acc. Pl.|
|Nom. Sg.||Acc. Sg.||Nom. Pl.||Acc. Pl.|
|Gen. Sg.||Dat. Sg.||Gen. Pl.||Dat. Pl.|
Biblical Greek Online. Laura Gibbs, Ph.D. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. You must give the original author credit. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one. Page last updated: April 9, 2005 8:06 PM