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20.140 Perfect Middle/Passive Participles

You are not required to memorize the forms of the perfect participles in this section, although you should read through the section to learn the basic characteristics of the perfect middle and passive participles. There are three aspect systems in Greek: present, aorist and perfect. However, because the present and aorist systems are so much more important than the perfect system, you are not required to learn any perfect forms for this course, but you should be able to recognize and understand them in your reading.

As you would expect, the perfect middle-passive participle usually features reduplication but there is no kappa. This is because the perfect middle-passive participle is formed from the perfect middle-passive verb stem (the fifth principal part of the Greek verb). As in the present system, in the perfect system the middle and passive forms are identical (unlike the aorist system, where the middle and passive forms are distinctively different).

Not surprisingly, the perfect middle-passive participles follow the first and second declension patterns, just as you have seen for the present middle-passive and the aorist middle participles.

In the Practice Sentences all the perfect middle and passive participles have been identified for you, so you will not have to recognize them on your own and you will not be quizzed on the forms of the perfect middle and passive participle. However, when you start reading Greek on your own, you will run into these participles occasionally. If you learn to recognize the reduplication of the stem, you should not have too much trouble recognizing these participles on your own.

To refresh your memory, here are some examples of the perfect stems of verbs that you have learned. The perfect middle-passive participles are formed on the perfect middle-passive stem, so you can see reduplication although there is no kappa. Notice that the ending is stressed, rather than the stem. The reduplication makes the perfect participles quite easy to recognize.

Perfect Active Participle
λύω λελυμένη λελυμένος
having loosened (mid.)
having been loosened
πιστεύω πεπιστευμένη
πεπιστευμένος πεπιστευμένον having believed (mid.)
having been believed
βάλλω βεβλημένη βεβλημένος βεβλημένον having thrown (mid.)
having been thrown
θεραπεύω τεθεραπευμένη τεθεραπευμένος τεθεραπευμένον having healed (mid.)
having been healed

Biblical Greek Online. Laura Gibbs, Ph.D. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. You must give the original author credit. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one. Page last updated: April 9, 2005 8:06 PM

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