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20.139 Perfect Active Participles

You are not required to memorize the forms of the perfect participles in this section, although you should read through the section to learn the basic characteristics of the perfect active participle.

As you would expect, the perfect participle usually features reduplication and the characteristic kappa in the stem. This is because the perfect active participle is formed from the perfect active verb stem (the fourth principal part of the Greek verb).

Not surprisingly, the perfect active participle follows the first declension for the feminine endings, and has third declension endings for the masculine and neuter, just as you have seen with the present and aorist active participles and with the aorist passive participle. Notice the very distinctive -υῖα- suffix for the feminine participle forms.

In the Practice Sentences all the perfect active participles have been identified for you, so you will not have to recognize them on your own and you will not be quizzed on the forms of the perfect active participle. However, when you start reading Greek on your own, you will run into these participles occasionally. If you learn to recognize the reduplication of the stem and notice the kappa, you should not have too much trouble recognizing these participles on your own.

To refresh your memory, here are some examples of the perfect stems of verbs that you have learned. The perfect active participles are formed on the perfect active tense stem. Since the perfect tense does not have augment, you do not have to remember to remove the augment, as you did with the aorist participles.

Present Perfect  
Perfect Active Participle
Active Active
λύω λέλυκα I have
λελυκυῖα λελυκώς λελυκός having
πιστεύω πεπίστευκα I have
πεπιστευκυῖα πεπιστευκώς πεπιστευκός having
βάλλω βέβληκα I have
βεβληκυῖα βεβληκώς βεβληκός having
πίπτω πέπτωκα I have
πεπτωκυῖα πεπτωκώς πεπτωκός having
θεραπεύω τεθεράπευκα I have
τεθεραπευκυῖα τεθεραπευκώς τεθεραπευκός having


Biblical Greek Online. Laura Gibbs, Ph.D. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. You must give the original author credit. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one. Page last updated: April 9, 2005 8:06 PM

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