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Croy Index: Vocabulary - Prosody - Verbs - Nouns - Adjectives - Nominals - Other Topics - Syntax List

15.101 Forms of the Perfect Middle/Passive Indicative

There is no difference between middle and passive forms in the perfect system, just as in the present system. (It is only in the aorist system that the middle and passive forms are not identical.)

In the middle and passive forms of the perfect, the stem have reduplication, but unfortunately there is not a kappa in the stem. Still, in most cases the distinctive reduplication will allow you to recognize the perfect form of the verb.

You will see that the endings are very similar to the middle/passive endings that you learned for the present middle/passive. This is also helpful in terms of recognizing the perfect middle/passive for vowel-initial verbs. When a vowel-initial verb reduplicates, the effect resembles augment - but you would certainly not expect to see augment with these endings! So even though there is not a distinctive kappa in the stem of the perfect middle/passive as there is in the active stem, you should not have too much trouble recognizing a perfect middle/passive verb form when you encounter one in your reading:

Present Middle/Passive
Present Middle/Passive
Perfect Middle/Passive
Perfect Middle/Passive
I am being destroyed λύομαι ο-μαι μαι λέλυμαι I have been destroyed
you am being destroyed λύῃ
σαι λέλυσαι you have been destroyed
she am being destroyed λύεται ε-ται ται λέλυται she has been destroyed
we am being destroyed λυόμεθα ό-μεθα μεθα λελύμεθα we have been destroyed
you am being destroyed λύεσθε ε-σθε σθε λέλυσθε you have been destroyed
they am being destroyed λύονται ο-νται νται λέλυνται they have been destroyed

The main difference between the perfect middle/passive and the present middle/passive is that in the present system, there is a vowel inserted between the stem and the ending proper, whereas in the perfect the endings are affixed directly to the stem. (As Croy points out, this sometimes causes changes in the verb stem if the verb stem ends in a consonant - γεγραφ plus ται becomes γέγραπται, etc.)

Biblical Greek Online. Laura Gibbs, Ph.D. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. You must give the original author credit. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one. Page last updated: April 9, 2005 8:06 PM

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