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12.78 Formation of the Future Tense

Please make sure you read Croy section 78 very carefully.

Although it is not always possible to predict the future tense stem of a verb, you can predict it most of the time.

If the present tense stem of the verb ends in a vowel or diphthong, the future tense stem will often consist of the present tense stem with a sigma added to it. Here are some examples:

ἀκούω ἀκούσω  
λύω λύσω  
πιστεύω πιστεύσω  
θεραπεύω θεραπεύσω  
πορεύομαι πορεύσομαι (deponent verb - middle forms in both present and future)

When the present stem ends in a consonant, the added sigma sometimes interacts with the consonant, either in terms of the spelling or the sound combination itself may change. For example, you should not be surprised to see the double-consonants ψ and ξ appear in the stem. The ψ stands for the combination π-σ and also β-σ and φ-σ.

βλέπω βλέψω
(sometimes a different verb, ὄψομαι, is used; see "suppletion" below)
γράφω γράψω
πέμπω πέμψω

The ξ stands for the combination κ-σ and also γ-σ and χ-σ.

ἔχω ἕξω
(note the change in aspiration to rough breathing)
ἄρχω ἄρξω
ἄγω ἄξω
συνάγω συνάξω
δέχομαι δέξομαι
(deponent verb - middle forms in both present and future)
ἀνοίγω ἀνοίξω  
προσεύχομαι προσεύξομαι
(deponent verb - middle forms in both present and future)

When there is a dental consonant (τ, δ or ζ), the dental consonant often simply falls out when the sigma is added:

σῴζω σώσω
(notice that there is no iota subscript in the future stem)
βαπτίζω βαπτίσω
δοξάζω δοξάσω
θαυμάζω θαυμάσω
(sometimes θαυμάσομαι; see section 79)


Biblical Greek Online. Laura Gibbs, Ph.D. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. You must give the original author credit. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one. Page last updated: April 9, 2005 8:06 PM

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