Grammar: Purpose and Result Clauses
Purpose and Result Clauses
In English, we have two different ways of expressing purpose clauses. Often we use an "accusative + infinitive" construction:
But sometimes we use a "so that" construction:
The "so that" construction for the English purpose clause shows the close relationship between purpose and result clauses in English. The words "so...that" can be used in English to express a result:
In classical Latin, the word ut plus the subjunctive is used to construct both purpose clauses and result clauses. The word ne is used for negative purpose clauses, and the phrase ut non is used for negative result clauses.
Sequence of Tense in Purpose and Result Clauses
The tense of the subjunctive follows the rules for Sequence of Tense. Only the present subjunctive and the imperfect subjunctive used for purpose and result clauses: the present subjunctive is used for primary sequence, and the imperfect subjunctive is used for secondary sequence. So, make sure you understand the difference between primary and secondary sequence, and make sure you are familiar with the present and the imperfect subjunctive endings.
In medieval Latin, the word quod replaces the use of ut + subjunctive. Note that this Latin quod looks a lot like the English "that". Sometimes this medieval Latin quod will be used with the subjunctive, and sometimes with the indicative. (Compare the non-standard English usage: "I want that he should find a job!").